strength strengthen strike string strong struggle student study stuff stupid stupidity suck Sudan Whilst many sources state that it takes around 10,000 words to attain approximate fluency of a language (a problematic simplification but nevertheless) Toki Pona only has 120 unique words. That is to say that this sentence has a subject (“I”) and an object (“dogs”) (In the future we will talk about indirect and direct objects. limited and closed vocabulary, toki pona still exhibits many of the features of a natural human language. With just 120-123 words (depending on how you count), I didn't think it was possible to say anything. Many of us felt that this is just a relex of English, whereas it should be 'toki kepeken toki pona' ('speak using/by means of Toki Pona'). Erythematously? telo li pona. Sentence = A complete concept containing at least one main clause, but often with helper (. endobj The predicate is the action part of the sentence, but it doesn’t have to refer to a single verb. Now for some speedy Toki Pona. That’s it. On Glosbe you can check not only translations into language English or Toki Pona: we also provide examples of usage, by showing dozens of examples of translated sentences containing translated phrase. 1 General Information 2 Classification 3 Phonology 3.1 Consonants 3.2 Vowels 3.3 Phonotactics 4 Writing System 5 Grammar 5.1 Morphology 5.2 Syntax 5.3 Grammatical Differences with Toki Pona 6 Lexical Differences with toki pona 6.1 Words Removed 6.2 Words Added 6.3 Words with Additional/Modified Meanings 7 Lexicon 8 Example Texts 8.1 (Beautiful Woman) ~jan pona~ 8.2 … But since toki pona’s basic dictionary only uses 120 words (plus a few community additions), a logographic system for toki pona also becomes significantly easier to learn and use than that of Chinese, which requires knowing at least 1500 characters to achieve fluency. Since my first high school Spanish lesson I realised how much I loved languages. But depending on where we throw our brackets this could change meaning: [toki musi] [kalama lili] → “a joke” + “that is quiet”, [[toki musi] kalama] lili → “a joke about sound” + “that is short”. 5 0 obj Alphabet Toki Pona uses nine sitelen sitelen renderer by Olaf Janssen. Quiet Joke / To Joke Quietly → [something said that is fun that has a sound that is small] → ??? The last bit of English Grammar you need for Toki Pona is to understand what a predicate is. pilin pona li pana e sitelen pona. The essence of Toki Pona. For proper names, toki pona uses so-called “unofficial words”. ‘are’/’to be’, as it is implied), sina {li} toki e toki pona = sina toki e toki pona = You speak Toki Pona, [subject] [omit: li] [predicate] [e] [object], jan pona li toki e moku sina = the good person talks to your food, (note that sina is being used as an adjective, 'your', here not a pronoun, 'you'). I love learning about languages. Other languages structure differently, but thankfully for us Toki Pona only employs active SVO ordered structures. 254 It is a minimal language. Obviously there are other uses for commas and semicolons, but those will have to wait for another day. By 2010 the toki pona corpus was large enough to find dozen of examples of most kinds of usages for each word. English can get more complex when it feels like it, but this is our basic sentence and clause structure: {[subject] + [predicate]}. Let’s build from the ground up with our parts of a sentence: We can get more complex and throw in a pronoun (a word in place of a noun) and use a more complex verb tense structure: Now we get a bit more complex. This [subject + verb +/- object] structure, SVO, for short is the basic structure of the English language; everything else gives supplementary and subordinate information. Toki Pona favors simplicity over clarity, and touts itself as "the language of good. Verbs aren’t conjugated, meaning they don’t change for tense or person. quickly, sadly, hungrily) but others don’t (e.g. Here is a link to a comprehensive dictionary of toki pona's entire vocabulary, derived from Sonja Elen Kisa's book 'Toki Pona: The Language of Good'. This is how meaning can be encoded in Toki Pona, and therefore from those 120 roots you can encode as many concepts as you are able to construct. It’s another way of grouping words and an alternate, more robust definition of a clause. What a beast of sentence analysis! That’s your English language Primer. A comparison of basic Toki Pona and English sentence structure. For example “moku” is the root associated with food and eating. Toki Pona favors simplicity over clarity, and touts itself as “the language of good. Toki Pona is not very well known, but it is the simplest language in the world. It’s what you do when your clauses are independent (not linked by a conjunction) but the writer feels that the ideas are linked. It has a simple user interface with various features that more hard-core users can dive into if they choose. jan li moku e kili = people eat fruit/vegetables, (note no verb, e.g. It is very simple and each word conveys multiple meanings, based on the core essence of that word or idea. I might then ask for: [water] [hot] [power] [sleep] [none], ≈ [the hot water of power that causes no sleep]. Cheat sheet by blinry, CC0. Since its inception it has been considered an investigation into linguistic minimalism, a proof of concept for the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis, and an application of the Taoist principle of 儉(jiǎn: frugality, simplicity, or moderation). ���A+��YA��@Q`�� �X&%�+F�a��=����)#�}�|���`�,}��S�|�F�|ЙU�-�P��\f~|&2{�z��C�W�n����e/ko$�M5�5��G����4dh3;]��Ԏ)S['���Z����)R��6�9� ��3ȘI:6�6��rj�8?o=I�B _��}��ӔG3l��L��LMT���Z�-q��� �Ue1�k�{��d�D�: Note that I will use curly brackets {} to signify the omitted li, after I or You, to aid with sentence structure clarity. endobj From a language which has no words for quietness or loudness or jokes or cutlery or friendship, you have created ways to say these things. Professional lexicographers determine the meaning of a word by finding example usages. sona pi toki pona. Back to subject-verb-object discussion. So to say “a quiet joke” (aka “a talk-fun that-is sound-low”) we could say: Which will logically render itself as: [toki musi] pi [kalama lili]. The sky waters, but the air is not watery. My newest obsession is the language Toki Pona, the world’s smallest language, a ConLang (constructed language). %PDF-1.4 Useful phrases in Toki Pona. For serious, detail-oriented students, Sonja's book is worth the purchase. Hmm. From there, a democratic system to choose emojis was set up, and various tools to type in this script on computers were developed. Toki Pona struggle in Toki Pona English-Toki Pona dictionary. Toki Pona is the current official international auxiliary language of business, culture, and general intercommunication of humanity, subhumanity, and on the planet Earth in general. Toki Pona relies very heavily on expressing ideas by using root words together. This side describes the entire grammar, the other side contains the entire vocabulary. ike li kama. Now here we might run into an issue because we want to combine, “toki musi” with “kalama lili” to become “toki musi kalama lili”. Once we understand this, working through Toki Pona becomes far simpler. When the concept we want to refer to isn’t in the list of 120 words, we just construct it by joining some instead. other resources. ale li jo e tenpo. In another example, the word wile means both ‘to … Toki ma the language of the world Introduction. 3 0 obj *Note that sources can cite 119-125 root words, due to obsolescence and other quirks. <> I encourage Toki Pona enthusiasts to seek out other sites and study materials. Like a pidgin, it focuses on simple concepts and elements that are relatively universal among cultures. stream See for the website of Toki Pona, including the official Toki Pona book (2014). Toki Pona is a constructed, minimal language, designed by the translator and linguist Sonja Lang. How does this differ I hear you ask: In the latter case, “being red” is the action [predicate] rather than “being” [verb] in a way that is red [adverb] (which I suppose one might write as “tomatoes are red-ly”, with red-ly being an adverb. The "12 Days of sona pi toki pona" series is a solid starting point, especially if you practice as you go along (on the Toki Pona Facebook page, for example). Live Toki Pona Sitelen Sitelen Renderer. One or two examples in the book seem inconsistent with the words' meanings or feel like a wrong use of them caused by interference from English, for example 'toki lon toki pona' - 'speak in Toki Pona'. It is basically a language like unto what you would expect from a primitive caveman language. To do this we need to understand the two main verb types, transitive and intransitive. Most of us use “pona tawa mi” for i like. And boom. Apart from a few purely grammatical components, most of the 120 Toki Pona root words change their job by where they are in a sentence. Maybe I want to specify that I want the hot drink that will give me energy and keep me awake (because I forgot to study for a cardiology exam and I can’t read ECG’s for the life of me). The official site poses some brief discussion of the cultural values of toki pona. ��2в� ��A��ţ�y�q��,�b� g�1L����di�@t��1q���!�����V���jt�IN�� ��O�� ��\��VX ~�!�ӎ�[!LL�����F3_o@�[�ϖ�B�3kC昻��2+�>C�n5��xC�T�������4�x܃��Q. Toki Pona aims to express maximal meaning with minimal complexity. Then what’s a semicolon? You can’t “nap the bed”, as fun as that sounds.